On 5 April the Portuguese constitutional court ruled that some of the sweeping new government cuts (to holiday bonuses for civil servants and pensioners, unemployment and sickness benefits) were unlawful (5 April) were unlawful.
Presidential elections were held in Cyprus on 17 February.
Wednesday 14 November, the day this paper goes to press, will see the first Europe-wide general strike in history.
14 November will see Europe’s first ever continent-wide general strike.
Trade union federations in Greece, Spain, Portugal, Malta, and Cyprus have called general strikes on Wednesday 14 November.
The TUC General Council is supposed to be committed to investigating the practicalities of a general strike.
The election in the Netherlands on 12 September produced an increased vote, and victory, for the main right-wing party, VVD.
Les nations n'ont pas toujours existé. En Europe, la croissance du commerce a créé des unités avec une langue commune, une culture, des lois, un système fiscal et des communications, les États-nations qui se sont développés entre les 16e et 19e siècles.
George Irvin is a professor at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London, and author of Super rich: the rise of inequality in Britain and the United States.