Max Shachtman, writing in 1938, surveys the stages of the long struggle against Stalinism which was crystallised in September 1938 by the founding of the Fourth International.
Marxism and Stalinism
Just as the main body of the
Communist International came
out of the Second International,
so the roots of the Fourth Inter-
national are to be traced to the
beginnings of the crisis in the
Knowledge of China’s past is crucial for understanding the country’s present.
This summer marks the hundredth anniversary of the drafting of a letter which revealed one of history’s greatest secrets. Or maybe not.
Claude McKay (1889-1948) was a Jamaican poet who, during his time in London, became involved in revolutionary socialist circles.
The text of Stalin’s report to the 18th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is as yet available only in abridged form and there has not, at this writing, been enough time to give the report the detailed and thoroughgoing analysis it merits.
I: 5 September 1939
The Hitler-Stalin pact is the most sensational news to come out of Moscow in many years.
The outbreak of the Second World War has once more put prominently at the top of the order of the day the “Russian question”. The signing of the Hitler-Stalin Pact was followed by the joint invasion of Poland; by the reduction of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia to the state of vassals of the Kremlin; by the invasion and seizure of part of Finland by the Red Army; and by speculation and prediction of coming events which, a year ago, would have been waved aside as preposterous.
Flashback on the “Russian Question”. The 1939 dispute in the light of new documents, by Ernest Erber: New International February 1948.
Where Is the Petty Bourgeois Opposition? A Repeated Challenge Remains Unanswered.